Global and Regional Markets for Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Infrastructure and Equipment

Aug 29, 2013
268 Pages - Pub ID: SB5104636
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Portrayed in the past five years as a pipe dream, technological savior and prudent investment to complement existing energy infrastructure, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS; also known as carbon capture and storage) is projected by SBI Energy as a complementary, sometimes marginal, technology in the global effort towards carbon dioxide emissions reduction. Representing approximately $(U.S.) 650 million in 2013 investment, global CCS infrastructure deployment is projected to intensify significantly to over $2.4 billion in 2020. Through the end of this report’s scope (2037), CCS is not projected to represent more than 25% of carbon emissions reductions below baseline even in the most active markets (e.g., North America, Europe). Other regions such as Latin America and Asia-Pacific will rely on CCS for less than 5% of necessary carbon emissions reductions.

Carbon management is already a prime destination for energy and industrial sector investment dollars. Regulatory limits, taxation and price setting on carbon dioxide emissions as a greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutant has spurred industries worldwide to invest in emissions reduction technologies and practices. Improvements to energy efficiency, use of alternative lower- or non-emitting energy resources and economic transformation have largely produced the carbon emissions reductions in the past decade. However, these trends alone will be unable to achieve the global carbon emissions reductions necessary to avert catastrophic climate change. CCS is widely viewed as a technologically viable method for the significant mitigation of fossil fuel-associated carbon emissions worthy of additional development and future deployment.

This report provides extensive and detailed projections for global and regional CCS markets through 2037, as well as a review of the historical markets for CCS technology since 2008. Markets are valued by total capital expenditure (CAPEX) investment in CCS infrastructure and by equipment orders. Cumulative estimated equipment orders for the period of 2020-2037 are segmented by carbon post-combustion absorption and removal, compression, air separation (ASU), water-gas shift (WGS), and balance of plant (BoP) equipment. Market segmentation is provided by CCS phase (capture, transportation, storage), region, capture source (power/industry), client or project type (historical market only / merchant capture, enhanced oil recovery [EOR], CCS project) and capture method (post-combustion, pre-combustion, oxyfuel). Regional carbon capture capacities and sequestration rates are also provided in terms of million metric tonnes (MMT) annually. The relative contribution of CCS and other factors to carbon emissions reductions below baseline (or default emissions trajectories) are also provided through 2037.

Report Methodology

Report methodology included one conservative regulatory scenario with appropriate emission reduction targets for each region; regional emission reduction projections for CCS-alternative factors such as energy intensity, renewable and nuclear energy generation, and the regional carbon intensity of fossil fuel consumption; and modeled demand for different capture technologies (post-combustion, pre-combustion, oxyfuel-combustion), carbon pipeline transportation networks, and carbon storage reservoirs.

Data sources included energy and economic projections from the U.S. Energy Information Agency (EIA), European Environment Agency (EEA), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and reports from individual emitter nations. Regulation in individual countries relevant to energy and emissions was also extensively consulted in preparing the report. Also consulted were CCS and EOR project databases maintained by the Massachusetts Institute for Technology (MIT), U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute (GCCSI) among others, which were updated and supplemented by SBI Energy’s own extensive research into projects’ status and progress. Project and equipment pricing and costs were modeled from citations collected through interviews and found in industry and research publications.

What You’ll Get in This Report

Global and Regional Markets for CCS Infrastructure and Equipment, 2008-2037 provides readers with extensive and detailed projections befitting of a still emerging technology market with undoubted applications in future markets burdened by crucial emissions targets. Readers can expect to find grounded, extensively researched and meticulously modeled market projections that reveal the most probable realities of future CCS deployment worldwide. Data provided in the report is supported by thorough author discussion of regional, regulatory, industry and technological factors shaping the market as well as informed overviews of important CCS projects and players. Additional support for the data comes in the form of contextual forecasts for regional carbon emissions and expected emissions reductions from falling economic energy intensity, greater generation from renewable and nuclear energy resources, and declining carbon intensity from fossil fuel generation.
Chapter 1: Executive Summary
Introduction
CCS Technology – Development and Proposed Schemes
Figure: 1-1 Carbon Capture, Transportation and Sequestration Schematic
Carbon Capture
Carbon Emission Sources and CCS Deployment
Global CCS Market
Figure: 1-2 Global CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and Million Metric Tonnes [MMT]/year)
Figure: 1-3 Global CCS Cumulative CAPEX by Project Sector – Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary – and Category – Capture, Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures)
Figure: 1-4 Global Cumulative Carbon Capture Capacity Additions by Project Sector - Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary (2008-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 1-5 Global CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 1-6 Global CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 1-7 Global CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 1-8 Global Cumulative Capture Equipment Market by Source- Technology – Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 1-9 Global Capture Facility Equipment Market by Equipment Category – Carbon Absorption and Removal, Compression, Air Separation Units (ASU), Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Reactors, and Balance of Plant (BoP) (2020-2037; cumulative) ($U.S. millions)
Table: 1-1 Global Carbon Capture Capacity by Source-Technology -
Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture – and Carbon Sequestration Rate (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 1-2 Global CCS CAPEX and Equipment Market – Capture, Transportation and Storage (2008-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Climate Change Conventions and Mitigation Agreements
Table: 1-3 National and Other GHG Emissions Targets and Goals Worldwide
Table: 1-4 National and Other Incentives and Policy Support for CCS Worldwide
Carbon Markets and Emission Trading Schemes
Table: 1-5 Carbon Emissions Trading Schemes (ETS) and Cap-and-
Trade Systems Worldwide (Country or Other Political Unit, Start Year, Sector[s], Scheme Description, Price)
Conclusions
Chapter 2: Overview of Carbon Capture and Sequestration
Introduction
Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Climate Change Mitigation
Impact of Carbon Dioxide in Climate Change
Table: 2-1 Global Warming Potentials of GHGs (Lifetime and GWP in 20, 100, and 500 years)
Figure: 2-1 Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Gas (% of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent [CO2e] Metric Tonnes)
Non-CCS Alternatives to Reduced Carbon Emissions
Figure: 2-2 CCS and the Addressable Anthropogenic GHG Emissions Mitigation Market
Sustainable Land Usage
Conservation
Energy Efficiency
Figure: 2-3 Energy Intensity Equations
Figure: 2-4 Carbon Intensity Equations
Renewables and Nuclear - Zero- and Near Zero-Carbon Emissions Energy
Figure: 2-5 Zero- and Near Zero-Emissions Energy Factor Equation in the Determination of Carbon Intensity trends
Fossil Fuel Carbon Intensity Reduction
Figure: 2-6 Fossil Fuel Carbon Intensity Equations
Alternatives to Carbon Sequestration
CCS Technology – Development and Proposed Schemes
Carbon Sequestration (Storage)
Figure: 2-7 Carbon Dioxide EOR Schematic
Carbon Transportation
Figure: 2-8 Carbon Capture, Transportation and Sequestration Schematic
Carbon Capture
Post-Combustion
Figure: 2-9 Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Methods
Pre-Combustion
Oxyfuel-Combustion
Industrial Processes
Carbon Emission Sources and CCS Deployment
Natural Sources
Natural Gas Processing
Power Generation (Combustion)
Ethanol Production
Oil Refining
Gasification
Other Industries
Ammonia
Steel
Cement
Pulp & Paper
Beverage
Conclusion
Chapter 3: Contemporary and Future Markets for CCS
Infrastructure and Equipment
Introduction
Market Scoping
Capital Expenditures and Equipment
Carbon Capture and Storage Volumes
Market Segmentation
Methodology
Energy and Emissions Projections and Models
Policy Development and Regulation
Role of Alternative Emissions Reduction Technologies and Practices
Carbon Markets
Global CCS Market
Figure: 3-1 Global CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and Million Metric Tonnes [MMT]/year)
Figure: 3-2 Global CCS Cumulative CAPEX by Project Sector – Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary – and Category – Capture, Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures)
Figure: 3-3 Global Cumulative Carbon Capture Capacity Additions by Project Sector - Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary (2008-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-4 Global CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-5 Global CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-6 Global CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-7 Global Cumulative Capture Equipment Market by Source- Technology – Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-8 Global Capture Facility Equipment Market by Equipment Absorption and Removal, Compression, Air Separation Units (ASU), Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Reactors, and Balance of Plant (BoP) (2020-2037; cumulative) ($U.S. millions)
Table: 3-1 Global Carbon Capture Capacity by Source-Technology - Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture – and Carbon Sequestration Rate (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-2 Global CCS CAPEX and Equipment Market – Capture, Transportation and Storage (2008-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Regional Markets for CCS Explored
North America
Figure: 3-9 North American Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (millions of metric tonnes[MMT]year)
Table: 3-3 North American and U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-10 North American CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-11 North American CCS Cumulative CAPEX by Project Sector – Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary – and Category – Capture, Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures)
Figure: 3-12 North American Cumulative Carbon Capture Capacity Additions by Project Sector - Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary (2008-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-13 North American CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-14 North American Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (CCS, Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-4 North American Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-15 North American CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-16 North American CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-17 North American Cumulative Capture Equipment Market by Source-Technology – Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-18 North American Capture Facility Equipment Market by Equipment Category – Carbon Absorption and Removal, Compression, ASUs, WGS Reactors, and BoP (2020-2037; cumulative) ($U.S. millions)
Table: 3-5 North American Carbon Capture Capacity by Source- Technology - Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture – and Carbon Sequestration Rate (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-6 North American CCS CAPEX and Equipment Market – Capture, Transportation and Storage (2008-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Europe
Figure: 3-19 European and EU-27 Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-7 European and EU-27 Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-20 European CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-21 European CCS Cumulative CAPEX by Project Sector – Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary – and Category – Capture, Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures)
Figure: 3-22 European Cumulative Carbon Capture Capacity Additions by Project Sector - Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary (2008-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-23 European CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-24 European and EU-27 Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (CCS, Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-8 European and EU-27 Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-25 European CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-26 European CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-27 European Cumulative Capture Equipment Market by Source-Technology – Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-28 European Capture Facility Equipment Market by Equipment Category – Carbon Absorption and Removal, Compression, ASUs, WGS Reactors, and BoP (2020-2037; cumulative) ($U.S. millions) .. 97
Table: 3-9 European Carbon Capture Capacity by Source-Technology - Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture – and Carbon Sequestration Rate (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-10 European CCS CAPEX and Equipment Market – Capture, Transportation and Storage (2008-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Asia-Pacific
Figure: 3-29 Asia-Pacific – Total, OECD (Developed) and Non-OECD - Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-11 Asia-Pacific – Total, OECD (Developed) and Non-OECD - Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-30 Asia-Pacific CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-31 Asia-Pacific CCS Cumulative CAPEX by Project Sector – Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary – and Category – Capture, Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures)
Figure: 3-32 Asia-Pacific Cumulative Carbon Capture Capacity Additions by Project Sector - Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary (2008-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-33 Asia-Pacific CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-34 Asia-Pacific – Total, OECD (Developed) and Non-OECD - Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (CCS, Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table 3-12 Asia-Pacific – Total, OECD (Developed) and Non-OECD - Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2030-2037) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-35 Asia-Pacific CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-36 Asia-Pacific CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-37 Asia-Pacific Cumulative Capture Equipment Market by Source-Technology – Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-38 Asia-Pacific Capture Facility Equipment Market by Equipment Category – Carbon Absorption and Removal, Compression, ASUs, WGS Reactors, and BoP (2020-2037; cumulative) ($U.S. millions)
Table: 3-13 Asia-Pacific Carbon Capture Capacity by Source- Technology - Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture – and Carbon Sequestration Rate (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-14 Asia-Pacific CCS CAPEX and Equipment Market – Capture, Transportation and Storage (2008-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Latin America
Figure: 3-39 Latin American Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-15 Latin American Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-40 Latin American CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-41 Latin American CCS Cumulative CAPEX by Project Sector – Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary – and Category – Capture, Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures)
Figure: 3-42 Latin American Cumulative Carbon Capture Capacity Additions by Project Sector - Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary (2008- 2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-43 Latin American CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-44 Latin American Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (CCS, Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-16 Latin American Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-45 Latin American CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2020- 2037) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-46 Latin American CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-47 Latin American Cumulative Capture Equipment Market by Source-Technology – Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-48 Latin American Capture Facility Equipment Market by Equipment Category – Carbon Absorption and Removal, Compression, ASUs, WGS Reactors, and BoP (2020-2037; cumulative) ($U.S. millions)
Table 3-17 Latin American Carbon Capture Capacity by Source- Technology - Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture – and Carbon Sequestration Rate (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-18 Latin American CCS CAPEX and Equipment Market – Capture, Transportation and Storage (2008-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Middle East and Africa
Figure: 3-49 Middle Eastern and African Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-19 Middle Eastern and African Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-50 Middle Eastern and African CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-51 Middle Eastern and African CCS Cumulative CAPEX by Project Sector – Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary – and Category – Capture, Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures)
Figure: 3-52 Middle Eastern and African Cumulative Carbon Capture Capacity Additions by Project Sector - Merchant, EOR, CCS-Primary (2008-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-53 Middle Eastern and African CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2008-2020) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-54 Middle Eastern and African Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (CCS, Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-20 Middle Eastern and African Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-55 Middle Eastern and African CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-56 Middle Eastern and African CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-57 Middle Eastern and African Cumulative Capture Equipment Market by Source-Technology – Post-Combustion Coal, Post- Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-58 Middle Eastern and African Capture Facility Equipment Market by Equipment Category – Carbon Absorption and Removal, Compression, ASUs, WGS Reactors, and BoP (2020-2037; cumulative) ($U.S. millions)
Table: 3-21 Middle Eastern and African Carbon Capture Capacity by Source-Technology - Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture – and Carbon Sequestration Rate (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-22 Middle Eastern and African CCS CAPEX and Equipment Market – Capture, Transportation and Storage (2008-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Figure: 3-59 Russian & CIS Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-23 Russian & CIS Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2001-2020) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-60 Russian & CIS Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (CCS, Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-24 Russian & CIS Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Emission Reductions by Carbon Intensity Factor (Energy Intensity, Renewable/Nuclear Primary Energy Share, Fossil Fuel Emissions Rate) (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Figure: 3-61 Russian & CIS CCS CAPEX – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage – and Annual Capture Capacity Added (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions of Total Overnight Capital Expenditures and MMT/year)
Figure: 3-62 Russian & CIS CCS Equipment Market – Capture, Pipeline Transportation, Storage (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-63 Russian & CIS Cumulative Capture Equipment Market by Source-Technology – Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture (2020-2037) ($U.S. millions)
Figure: 3-64 Russian & CIS Capture Facility Equipment Market by Equipment Category – Carbon Absorption and Removal Compression, ASUs, WGS Reactors, and BoP (2020-2037; cumulative) ($U.S. millions)
Table: 3-25 Russian & CIS Carbon Capture Capacity by Source- Technology - Post-Combustion Coal, Post-Combustion Gas, IGCC, Oxyfuel, Industrial Capture – and Carbon Sequestration Rate (2020-2037) (MMT/year)
Table: 3-26 Russian & CIS CCS CAPEX and Equipment Market – Capture, Transportation and Storage (2008-2037) ($U.S. millions) . 142
Conclusion
Chapter 4: CCS Drivers – Regulatory Compliance and Carbon
Commodity Applications
Introduction
Climate Change Conventions and Mitigation Agreements
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Succeeding Agreements
Table: 4-1 List of Annex I Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Reported Carbon Emissions (million metric tonnes
[MMT]year; 1990/2000/2005/2010)
Table: 4-2 Reported Annex I Total GHG Emissions (with and without LULUCF) and Total CO2 Emissions (with and without LULUCF) (MMT; 1990/2008-2010)
Table: 4-3 Copenhagen Accord 2020 GHG Emissions Reduction Pledges by Country (base year or baseline and percentage reduction)
Table: 4-4 Doha Amendment 2020 GHG Emissions Reduction Targets by Country (base year and reduction percentage) European Union Emissions Reduction Agreements
Table: 4-5 First European Climate Change Programme (ECCP; 2000-2004) Working Groups – Relevant Policy
Sectors and Instruments for Emissions Reductions
Table: 4-6 Second European Climate Change Programme
(ECCP; 2005-2008) Working Groups – Relevant Policy Sectors and Instruments for Emissions Reductions
National and Sub-National Climate Change Mitigation Targets and Goals
Table: 4-7 National and Other GHG Emissions Targets and Goals Worldwide
United States
Table: 4-8 U.S. Federal Climate Change Legislation (2003-2009)
California
Table: 4-9 California Climate Change Legislation (1988-2013)
Canada
Table: 4-10 Canada GHG Emissions by Province and Territory (CO2e MMT/year) (1990-2010)
Table: 4-11 Canada GHG Emissions Reduction Targets for 2020 by Province and Territory (% or Amount, Base Year, Projected Emissions with Compliance in CO2e, MMT/year)
Norway
Switzerland
Turkey
Russia
Ukraine
Japan
Australia
Korea
China
India
Indonesia
Taiwan
Thailand
Mexico
Brazil
South Africa
International and National CCS Incentives and Support
Table: 4-12 National and Other Incentives and Policy Support for CCS Worldwide
UNFCCC
World Bank
European Union
EU Member Countries
Norway
Russia
United States
Table: 4-13 U.S. State CCS-Relevant Incentives and Regulation
Canada
Japan
Australia
Korea
China
India
Mexico
United Arab Emirates
South Africa
Carbon as a Commodity
Carbon Markets and Emission Trading Schemes
Table: 4-14 Carbon Emissions Trading Schemes (ETS) and Cap-and-Trade Systems Worldwide (Country or Other Political Unit, Start Year, Sector[s], Scheme Description, Price) Captured Carbon in Enhanced Oil Recovery
Figure: 4-1 Carbon Dioxide Prices in the U.S. EOR Market, Historical
and Projected (1984-2037) ($/metric tonne)
Captured Carbon in Industrial Applications
Conclusion
Chapter 5: Company Profiles
Introduction
Aker Clean Carbon
Table: 5-1 Aker Clean Carbon AS
Corporate Background
Product and Technology Portfolio
Company News
Projects
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Outlook
ALSTOM Carbon Capture
Table: 5-2 ALSTOM Carbon Capture GmbH Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Technology Portfolio
Company News
Projects
Table: 5-3 ALSTOM Carbon Capture Project Participation
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Outlook
Cansolv
Table: 5-4 Cansolv Technologies, Inc. Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Technology Portfolio
Company News
Projects
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Outlook
Fluor
Table: 5-5 Fluor Corporation Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Technology Portfolio
Performance
Figure: 5-1 Fluor Corporation Revenue by Segment ($ millions) (2008-2012)
Company News
Projects
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Outlook
Hitachi
Table: 5-6 Hitachi, Ltd. Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Technology Portfolio
Performance
Figure: 5-2 Hitachi Ltd. Revenue by Segment (¥ billions) (2008-2012)
Company News
Projects
Outlook
Linde
Table: 5-7 Linde AG Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Technology Portfolio
Performance
Figure: 5-3 Linde Group Revenue by Division (€ millions) (2008-2012)
Figure: 5-4 Linde Engineering Division Revenue by Plant Type (€ millions) (2008-2012)
Company News
Projects
Table: 5-8 Linde Carbon Capture and CCS Project Participation
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Outlook
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Table: 5-9 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Technology Portfolio
Table: 5-10 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. CCS Product and Technology Portfolio
Performance
Figure: 5-5 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Revenue by Segment (¥ billions) (FY 2008-FY 2012)
Company News
Projects
Table : 5-11 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Carbon Capture and CCS Project Participation
Outlook
Schlumberger
Table: 5-12 Schlumberger Ltd. Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Technology Portfolio
Performance
Figure: 5-6 Schlumberger Revenue by Group ($ millions) (2008-2012)
Company News
Projects
Table: 5-13 Schlumberger Carbon Sequestration Project Participation
Outlook
Siemens
Table: 5-14 Siemens AG Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Technology Portfolio
Table: 5-15 Siemens CCS Technology and Product Portfolio Performance
Figure: 5-7 Siemens Revenue (€ billions) (2008-2012)
Company News
Projects
Table: 5-16 Siemens CCS Project Participation
Outlook
UOP
Table: 5-17 UOP LLC Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Technology Portfolio
Performance
Company News
Projects
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Outlook

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