High Temperature Energy Storage: NaS, NaMx and Molten Salt

Aug 1, 2011
179 Pages - Pub ID: SB6207035
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The World Market for High Temperature Energy Storage

The $2.5 billion global high temperature energy storage (HTS) market of 2020 is going to be dominated by the sale and construction of molten salt storage systems for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. The HTS market is composed of three categories: sodium-sulfur (NaS) batteries, sodium-metal halide (NaMx) batteries, and molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. While NaS has been the strongest category ever since the first commercial systems were sold in 2003, it is molten salt TES systems that became the largest HTS category in 2010.

After four years of strong growth, the NaS battery market showed an unprecedented negative value for 2010. Despite this bizarre showing, the NaS HTS category has the potential for huge growth in the short and medium term because companies such as RUBENIUS in Mexico and the Abu Dhabi Water and Electric Authority in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are building hundreds of megawatts of energy storage systems designed around NaS batteries. However, lack of investment by governments and institutions into fundamental NaS battery research means the battery chemistry will be overtaken by lithium-ion in its primary sales channel of utility scale energy storage, resulting in a market decline after 2017.

Although it has been NaMx’s traditional market, sales of the battery for small electric vehicles (EVs) will virtually disappear by 2015. However, NaMx will continue to be a major battery type for electric and hybrid electric buses and small trucks. More noteworthy is the fact that the battery chemistry’s recent push into the stationary storage market, particularly for remote telecommunications equipment, is going to show exceptionally strong growth in the medium and long term. From less than 10% of the category’s sales in 2010, the stationary segment will be responsible for over half of the NaMx market by 2019. However, for NaMx batteries to effectively compete in the long term against lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries, more research into NaMx cell geometry and electrode chemistry that can operate at lower temperatures is going to be crucial to expanding overall sales of NaMx batteries by 2020.

Sales growth of molten salt TES systems (or really any thermal energy storage technology) is completely dependant on the growth of the global CSP market. Fortunately for this category, the legislation and regulation landscape for both renewable energy sources and grid energy storage is very favorable. By 2013 the U.S. will supplant Spain as the largest market for thermal energy storage and by 2015 more molten salt TES, by MWh, will be installed in the U.S. than in Spain. Both countries will continue to be strong growth regions through to 2020 due to continued CSP plant construction. However, other countries such as the UAE and Saudi Arabia will also begin to contribute significantly to the molten salt TES market by 2020.

The World Market for High Temperature Energy Storage by SBI Energy provides key insight into current and future markets for high temperature batteries and thermal storage worldwide, focusing on key countries for each market segment. The analysis includes definitions, current product offerings and market detail on the following segments:

  • Sodium-sulfur (NaS) batteries - Typically used for grid load leveling applications.
  • Sodium-metal halide (NaMx) batteries - Used for electric vehicles and stationary storage applications. Often referred to as ZEBRA batteries.
  • Molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) - Used for CSP installations.

The report also analyzes the key industries that make use of high temperature energy storage for their end products. These include electric vehicles, stationary and industrial energy storage and Smart Grid energy storage requirements.

Report Methodology This report contains primary and secondary data obtained from government sources, trade associations and publications, business journals, scientific papers, company literature, investment reports, and interviews with industry professionals. Statistics on commodity prices comes from the International Monetary Fund; production cost indexes are from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; statistics on stationary battery use in Europe come from the Association of European automotive and Industrial Battery Manufacturers (EUROBAT); CSP operating performance statistics comes from the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

What You’ll Get in This Report The World Market for High Temperature Energy Storage provides a concise, focused look on the markets for high temperature batteries and thermal energy storage as they exist today, and shows where these markets are moving between 2011 and 2020. The report highlights key players in the HTS industry and pinpoints ways that current and prospective competitors can capitalize on recent trends and spearhead new ones. No other market research report provides both the comprehensive analysis and extensive data that The World Market for High Temperature Energy Storage offers. Plus, you’ll benefit from extensive data, presented in easy-to-read and practical charts, tables and graphs.

How You’ll Benefit from this Report If your company is considering investing in energy storage technology, or is involved in businesses that require energy storage for commercial motive, stationary or electricity production applications, you will find this report invaluable as it provides a comprehensive package of information and insight not offered in any other single source. You will gain a thorough understanding of the current market for high temperature energy storage products, as well as projected markets and trends for these technologies through 2020. The report also provides a concise view of the top application industries for commercial HTS products, outlining key drivers and barriers for these markets.

This report will help:

  • Marketing managers identify market opportunities and develop targeted promotion plans for businesses looking to develop markets for both new and existing high temperature batteries and thermal energy storage.
  • Research and development professionals stay on top of competitor initiatives and explore demand for high temperature energy storage as well as the downstream product market for sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal halide batteries.
  • Advertising agencies working with clients in a host of market sectors such as telecommunications, electricity generation, transportation and industrial manufacturing to develop messages and images that compel businesses and industries to adopt HTS solutions for their energy storage needs.
  • Business development executives understand the dynamics of the market and identify possible partnerships with raw material providers, key organizations and HTS manufacturers with unique products or processes. The report also provides crucial information on job creation that is spurred by HTS technologies.
  • Information and research center librarians provide market researchers, brand and product managers and other colleagues with the vital information they need to do their jobs more effectively.
Chapter 1 Executive Summary
Scope & Methodology of this Report
HTS Category Descriptions
Table 1-1 Characteristics of some Common Energy Storage Systems
Figure 1-1 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
The High Temperature Energy Storage Market
NaS is the top Battery Chemistry for Grid Energy Storage
Figure 1-2 NaS Battery Installations by Year, 2003-2010 (in MW)
Sodium-Metal Halide Market
Table 1-2 Largest Customers of ZEBRA Batteries, 2001-2010
The Molten-Salt TES Market
Figure 1-3 CSP Thermal Energy Storage Installations by Type, 2006-2010 (in MWh)
Sodium-Sulfur (NaS) Batteries
Figure 1-4 Key Market Drivers and Barriers to NaS Battery Adoption, 2011
Global Production
Smart Grid Energy Storage Applications for NaS Batteries
Figure 1-5 Global NaS Installations by application, 1995-2009 (in MW)
The Cost Effectiveness of Grid Energy Storage for the Smart Grid
Table 1-3 Electricity Storage Costs by Megawatt-Scale Application, 2010
Power Conversion System Manufacturers
Laws and Regulations
Sodium-Metal Halide (NaMx) Batteries
Figure 1-6 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the NaMx Battery Market
Global NaMx Production
Figure 1-4 World NaMx Production Capacity, 2006, 2011, 2016, 2020 (in MWh)
Figure 1-7 Cost Breakdown of a NaMx Battery (in percent)
Future Market Expansion
Funding & Research
Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage
Figure 1-8 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the Molten Salt TES Market
The Cost of Production
Figure 1-9 PPI for Mining of Potassium salts & Boron Compounds, Oct. 2007- Nov. 2010 (indexed to June 2007)
Potential Market Areas
Laws and Regulations
Funding
Table 1-5 CSP R&D Funding by Country (not including the U.S.), 2005-2009 (in million $)
Research Efforts
Table 1-6 New Jobs Created from the High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2015, 2020
Job Creation
Key Competitors
Figure 1-10 Global TES Market by Competitor Based on Installed and Current Projects, June 2011 (in MWh installed)
Forecast
Figure 1-11 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2011-2020 (in million $)
NaS Battery Market Forecast
Table 1-7 Total NaS Battery Installations by Country, 2011-2020 (in MW)
NaMx Forecast
Figure 1-12 Global NaMx Battery Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
Molten Salt TES Forecast
Figure 1-13 Global Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
Table 1-8 Cumulative Molten Salt TES Installations by Country, 2010, 2015, 2020 (in GWh)
Chapter 2 Introduction
Scope of this Report
Methodology
Understanding the Capacity of Energy Storage
Sodium-Sulfur Batteries
Figure 2-1 Typical NaS Battery Cell
Table 2-1 Typical NaS Battery Characteristics
Market History
Key Design Issues
Figure 2-2 Effect of NaS Electrolyte Thickness on Operating Temperature
Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries
Figure 4-3 Typical NaMx Cell and Battery
Table 2-2 Typical NaMx Battery Characteristics
Market History
Key Design Issues
Molten-Salt Thermal Energy Storage Systems
Figure: 2-4 Typical Two-Tank Indirect Molten Salt TES System
Table 2-3 Characteristics of Molten Salt TES Systems
Market History
Key Design Issues
Other High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Technologies
Figure 2-5 Types of Thermal Energy Storage
Table 2-4 Some Thermal Energy Storage Options
Other High Temperature Energy Storage Systems
Competing Storage Technologies
Comparing Vehicle & Stationary Energy Storage Technologies
Table 2-5 Storage Technology Characteristics for Typical Installations
Comparing Large Scale Energy Storage Technologies
Figure 2-6 System Ratings for Different Energy Storage Technologies
Pumped Hydro
Compressed Air
Flywheels
Lithium-Ion Batteries
Flow Batteries
Chapter 3 Sodium-Sulfur Batteries
World Energy Storage Capacity for Electrical Energy
Figure 3-1 Total World Electricity Grid Energy Storage Capacity by Storage Type, 2009 (in MW)
NaS is the top Battery Chemistry for Grid Energy Storage
Figure 3-2 The World NaS Battery Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
Table 3-1 Global Energy Storage Market for Utility Applications by Technology, 2006-2010 (in million $)
Figure 3-3 NaS Battery Installations by Year, 2003-2010 (in MW)
NaS Battery Installations
Table 3-2 Recent Important NaS Battery Installations, 2008-2010
Market by Region: Japan Dominates
Figure 3-4 NaS Installations by Country, 1995-2010 (in MW)
Market by Application: Load Leveling Leads
Figure 3-5 Global NaS Installations by application, 1995-2009 (in MW)
Market Drivers
Figure 3-6 Key Market Drivers and Barriers to NaS Battery Adoption, 2011
Key Market Barriers for NaS Batteries
Key Market Drivers for NaS Batteries
Global Availability of Production
Figure 3-7 Global NaS production capacity by year, 2003-2020 (in MW)
The Cost of Production
Smart Grid Energy Storage Market Applications for NaS Batteries
Table 3-3 Grid Transmission & Distribution Applications for Energy Storage
Load Shifting
Table 3-4 Energy Storage Requirements for Load Shifting Applications
Power Quality
Table 3-5 Energy Storage Requirements for Grid Power Quality Applications
Renewable Energy Integration
Emergency Power
The Cost Effectiveness of Grid Energy Storage for the Smart Grid
Table 3-6 Electricity Storage Costs by Megawatt-Scale Application, 2010
Power Conversion System Manufacturers
Table 3-7 Global Energy Storage Market for Utility Applications by Technology, 2006-2010 (in million $)
Laws and Regulations
California’s Storage Bill AB 2514
Job Creation
Funding
Research Efforts
Environmental Impact
Figure 3-8 Electrical Grid CO2 Reduction by NaS Usage by Month
Forecast
Figure 3-9 Global NaS Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
Table 3-8 Announced NaS battery projects as of 1st Quarter 2011 (in MW)
Table 3-9 Total NaS Battery Installations by Country, 2011-2020 (in MW)
Chapter 4 The Sodium-Metal Halide Battery Market
Sodium-Metal Halide Market
Figure 4-1 The World NaMx Battery Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
Market by Region: Europe Based
Table 4-1 ZEBRA Battery use by OEM, 2011
The Motive Energy Storage Market
Market by Application: Electric Buses & Electric Cars are Top Markets for NaMx
Table 4-2 Largest Customers of ZEBRA Batteries, 2001-2010
Market Drivers
Figure 4-2 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the NaMx Battery Market
Global Availability of Production
Table 4-3 NaMx Production Capacity for FZ SoNick & GE Transportation, 2011
Figure 4-4 World NaMx Production Capacity, 2006, 2011, 2016, 2020 (in MWh)
The Cost of Production
Figure 4-3 Cost Breakdown of a NaMx Battery (in percent)
Figure 4-4 Cost of Nickel, 2001-2010 (in $/lb)
Future Market Expansion
Motive Power for Large Vehicles
Stationary Applications
Table 4-5 Comparison of NaMx and Lead-Acid Batteries for a Telecommunications Cabinet
Legislation & Regulation
Job Creation
Table 4-6 Incremental Job Creation in the NaMx Battery Market, 2012, 2016, 2020
Funding
Research Efforts
Planar Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries
Pairing NaMx Batteries with other Energy Storage for Motive Applications
Forecast
Figure 4-5 Global NaMx Battery Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
Chapter 5 Molten Salt Energy Storage
The Molten-Salt Market
Figure 5-1 Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
Market by Application
Figure 5-2 CSP Thermal Installations by CSP Technology Type & Storage Type, 2006-2010 (in number of installations)
Figure 5-3 CSP Thermal Energy Storage Installations by Type, 2006-2010 (in MWh)
Table 5-1 CSP Plants in Operation with Molten Salt TES Systems, 2010
Market by Region: The U.S. and Spain Spearhead Thermal Energy Storage
Figure 5-4 CSP Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Installations by Country, 2006-2010 (in MWh)
Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market Drivers & Barriers
Figure 5-5 Key Market Drivers & Barriers Affecting the Molten Salt TES Market
The Cost of Production
Table 5-2 Cost Estimate for Molten Salt Storage (in $/kWht)
Figure 5-6 PPI for Mining of Potassium salts & Boron Compounds, Oct. 2007- Nov. 2010 (indexed to June 2007)
World Salt Production for Thermal Storage
Figure 5-7 SQM Industrial Nitrate Production and Industrial Chemical Revenue, 2007-2010 (in thousand MT & million $)
Potential Market Areas
Figure 5-8 Marginal Annual Value of Each Incremental Hour of Storage for a Typical Texas CSP Plant (in $ million/hour)
Figure 5-9 Increase in Annual Operating Profits of a CSP Plant in Texas if Spinning Reserves can be Sold (in %)
Spinning Reserve
Figure 5-10 Sample Dispatch of a CSP Plant with 6 Hours of TES in Texas (in MWh & $/MWh)
Providing Energy at Peak Prices
Laws and Regulations
CSP Legislation in Spain: The 50 MW Barrier Benefits Thermal Storage
CSP Legislation in the U.S.: Tax Credits & Loan Guarantees
Power Purchase Agreements
Job Creation
Table 5-3 New Jobs Created from the Molten Salt TES Market, 2015, 2020
Figure 5-11 U.S. SETP Thermal Energy Storage R&D Funding, FY2007-FY2011 (in million $)
Funding
Table 5-4 CSP R&D Funding by Country (not including the U.S.), 2005-2009 (in million $)
Research Efforts
Table 5-5 Current SETP Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Research Initiatives, 2011
Modifying the Temperature Characteristics of the Salt Medium
Innovative TES Systems Using Molten Salt
Forecast
Figure 5-12 Global Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market Forecast, 2011-2020 (in million $)
Molten Salt TES Hits the Giga-Time
Figure 5-13 Global Molten Salt TES Installations by Year for Median Forecast, 2008-2020 (in GWh)
Table 5-6 Planned CSP Plants with Molten Salt TES Systems, Status as of June 2011
Table 5-7 Cumulative Molten Salt TES Installations by Country for Median Forecast, 2010, 2015, 2020 (in GWh)
Chapter 6 The HTS Market
The High Temperature Energy Storage Market
Figure 6-1 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2006-2010 (in million $)
Geographical Breakdown of the HTS Market
Table 6-1 Key Countries for the High Temperature Energy Storage Market
Industry Breakdown of the HTS Market
Figure 6-2 HTS Category & Market Channel Relationships
Resources
Table 6-2 production of Minerals Used in HTS Technologies, 2010 (in billion pounds)
Job Creation
Table 6-3 New Jobs Created from the High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2015, 2020
Forecast
Figure 6-3 The Global High Temperature Energy Storage Market, 2011-2020 (in million $)
Figure 6-4 CSP Thermal Installations by CSP Technology Type & Storage Type, 2006-2010 (in number of installations)
Chapter 7 Competitors
Sodium-Sulfur Battery Manufacturers
NGK Insulators
Overview
Performance
Figure 7-1 NGK Insulators Revenue, FY2007-FY2011 (in million $)
Figure 7-2 NGK Insulators NAS Battery Revenue, FY2007-FY2011 (in million $)
Production
Table 7-1 NGK NAS Battery Module Specifications
New Developments
SICCAS
Table 7-2 Performance Characteristics of the SICCAS SC-650 NaS Battery Cell
Sodium- Metal Halide Battery Manufacturers
EaglePicher Technologies
FZ SoNick
Overview
Performance
Products & Production
Table 7-3 FZ SoNick’s ZEBRA Battery Products, 2011
New Developments
Table 7-4 Evolution of FZ SoNick’s ZEBRA Battery Cells
GE Transportation
Overview
Performance
Figure 7-3 GE Transportation’s Revenue, 2006-2010 (in billion $)
Production
Table 7-5 GE Transportation’s Durathon Battery Products (Pre-Production), 2011
New Developments
Sumitomo Electric Industries
Thermal Energy Storage Manufacturers
Figure 7-4 Global TES Market by Competitor Based on Installed and Current Projects, June 2011 (in MWh installed)
Abengoa
Overview
Performance
Figure 7-5 Abengoa Solar’s Revenue, 2007-2010 (in million $)
Table 7-6 Abengoa Solar’s Portfolio of Projects as of December 2010 (in MW)
Production
Table 7-7 Abengoa Solar’s Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
New Developments
Archimede Solar Energy
Flagsol
Overview
Performance
Figure 7-6 Solar Millennium’s Technology & Construction Segment Revenue, FY2006-FY2010 (in million $)
Production
Table 7-8 Specifications of Flagsol’s Two-Tank Indirect Molten Salt TES Systems
Table 7-9 Flagsol’s Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
New Developments
INITEC Energia
Table 7-10 INITEC Energia’s Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
Pratt & Whitney
Overview
Performance
Figure 7-7 Pratt & Whitney Revenue, 2006-2011 (in billion $)
Production
Table 7-11 SolarReserve’s Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
New Developments
SENER
Overview
Performance
Figure 7-8 SENER Revenue, 2006-2010 (in million $)
Production
Table 7-12 SENER’s Molten Salt TES Projects as of June 2011
Table 7-13 Specifications of SENER’s Molten Salt TES Systems
New Developments
Appendix: Company Contact Information
NaS Battery Manufacturers & Balance of System Suppliers
NaMx Battery Companies
Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Companies

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