Liquefied Natural Gas Market Worldwide

 
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Published Jun 1, 2010 | 154 Pages | Pub ID: SB2610962

Natural gas accounts for 20% of the world’s marketed energy, with more than 120 quadrillion Btu of natural gas is consumed globally. It is a critical fuel in the generation of electric power and heat. Furthermore, it is used in industry as an energy source and/or feedstock for manufacturing fertilizer, pulp and paper, metals, chemicals, textiles, plastics and pharmaceuticals, among others.

Nearly 120 quadrillion Btu of natural gas is consumed globally. Some gas-producing countries, such as those in the Middle East and Africa, are able to satisfy all of their natural gas demand through domestic supply. Others, such as Japan and South Korea, are almost entirely reliant on natural gas imports to fuel power plants, industrial processes and provide heat. Still others, including those in Europe and North America, are able to partially meet natural gas demand with domestic supply while supplementing the rest with imports.

Over a quarter of global natural gas demand is fulfilled by imported natural gas. Countries in Europe and Eurasia are by far the leading importers of natural gas and import about 450 billion cubic meters of the fuel, or about 40% of the region’s natural gas requirements, annually. This region is followed in natural gas imports by the Asia Pacific and North America regions. Together the three regions account for 95% of global natural gas imports.

Because of its low density and high volume, natural gas is costly and inefficient to store and transport over long distances in its gaseous state. Moreover, crossing international borders via pipeline amplifies commercial and investment risks and complexities. Pipeline construction and maintenance costs, along with technical challenges, escalate with distance. Further, when the pipeline must traverse countries which are not involved as gas producers or consumers, concessions may be difficult and costly to obtain.

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas which has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. Liquefying natural gas allows access to natural gas from regions with vast production potential to end markets too distant to be connected by pipeline. The global market for LNG accounts for nearly 10% of total annual worldwide natural gas consumption. Pipeline gas continues to account for the majority of global natural gas trade. However, nearly 30% of natural gas trade is now provided by LNG.

Despite the global economic recession in 2008 and 2009, global demand for LNG increased by nearly 22% in volume terms from 2005 to 2009. North American imports are expected to more than double from 16 Bcm in 2009 to 40 Bcm in 2013. Over the past five years, significant investments in the LNG supply chain have been made around the world and global liquefaction capacity has increased by 40%.

LNG has assumed an increasingly significant role in the energy security of several nations around the world. LNG markets are expected to show robust growth over the next several years, driven largely by supply push. Driven by relatively low prices and a global economic recovery, LNG demand is expected to catch up with supply-chain capacity by 2014. LNG markets will likely experience renewed investments in supply-chain infrastructure in the years beyond 2015.

While the US currently accounts for less than 6% of global LNG imports, US domestic natural gas demand and supply dynamics have dramatically influenced global LNG investments over the past few years. Given the concurrent and rapid increases in US unconventional gas production capacity and LNG regasification and storage capacity, the US is likely to continue to re-shape global LNG trading in years to come.

Liquefied Natural Gas Market Worldwide includes a broad review of the global market for liquefied natural gas. Key technologies leveraged within the LNG supply chain, including liquefaction, shipping and regasification technologies are discussed. An overview of the LNG market structure, mechanisms and key participants is provided. Additionally, recent investments in LNG liquefaction capacity, shipping capacity, and regasification capacity across regions and major participating nations are discussed.

The report provides historic and forecast global energy demand 2005 to 2015 and energy demand drivers and trends are reviewed. Further, world energy supply sources 2005 to 2015 are discussed and the linkage between domestic natural gas production, import dependence and LNG trading are outlined. Finally, historic and forecast international LNG trade volumes and values are presented for the period 2005-2015.

Read an excerpt from this report below.

Report Methodology

The information in Liquefied Natural Gas Market Worldwide is based on primary and secondary research. Primary research entailed gathering information from firms and individuals involved in LNG project development, marketing, distribution and sales of LNG and natural gas, utilities, analysts and consultants to the energy industry to obtain insight into the technologies and market factors shaping the industry. Secondary research entailed data gathering from relevant sources, including government and industry publications, company literature and corporate annual reports.

What You’ll Get in This Report

Liquefied Natural Gas Market Worldwide contains important insights and projections regarding the future of this market around the world. The report provides both the comprehensive analysis and data. Subscribers will benefit from extensive data, presented in easy-to-read and practical charts, tables and graphs.

Liquefied Natural Gas Market Worldwide includes a broad review of the global market for liquefied natural gas. Key technologies leveraged within the LNG supply chain, including liquefaction, shipping and regasification technologies are discussed. An overview of the LNG market structure, mechanisms and key participants is provided. Additionally, recent investments in LNG liquefaction capacity, shipping capacity, and regasification capacity across regions and major participating nations are discussed.

The report provides historic and forecast global energy demand 2005 to 2015 and energy demand drivers and trends are reviewed. Further, world energy supply sources 2005 to 2015 are discussed and the linkage between domestic natural gas production, import dependence and LNG trading are outlined. Finally, historic and forecast international LNG trade volumes and values are presented for the period 2005-2015.

How You’ll Benefit from This Report

If your company is already doing business in the market for liquefied natural gas, or is considering entering the marketplace, you will find this report invaluable. It provides a comprehensive package of information and insight not offered in any other single source. You will gain a thorough understanding of the current global market for liquefied natural gas, as well as projected markets and trends through 2015.

This report will help:

  • Marketing managers understand the market forces shaping the market for liquefied natural gas and identify market opportunities.
  • Research and development professionals stay on top of competitor initiatives and explore demand for LNG.
  • Business development executives understand the dynamics of the market and identify possible partnerships.
  • Information and research center librarians provide market researchers, product managers, and other colleagues with the vital information they need to do their jobs more effectively.
Chapter 1: Executive Summary
Introduction
Figure 1-1: Global Marketed Energy Use by Fuel (in quadrillion Btu)
Table 1-1: Global Natural Gas Consumption and Imports (in billion cubic meters)
LNG Supply Chain
Exploration and Production
Liquefaction
Figure 1-2: LNG Liquefaction Plant Process Overview
Figure 1-3: World LNG Exports by Country, 2009 (in % Bcma)
Shipping
Cargo Capacity
Cargo Containment Systems
Carrier Propulsion Systems
Table 1-2: World LNG Fleet, 2009-2012
Regasification
Figure 1-4: LNG Regasification Plant Process Overview
Offshore Regasification
Figure 1-5: World LNG Imports by Country, 2009 (in % Bcma)
LNG Market Structure
Market Size and Demand Trends
Global Energy Demand
Figure 1-6: World Marketed Energy Consumption, 2005-2015 (in quadrillion Btu)
Figure 1-7: World Population and Gross Domestic Product, 2005-2015 (population in millions, GDP in $ billion)
Figure 1-8: World Electricity Generation by Fuel Type, 2005, 2015 (Percent of Total)
Global Energy Supply
Figure 1-9: World Marketed Energy Use by Fuel Type, 2005-2015 (in quadrillion Btu)
Figure 1-10: World Natural Gas Reserves by Region, 2009 (Trillion Cubic Feet, Percent of Total)
Figure 1-11: World Natural Gas Production, 2009 (Trillion Cubic Feet)
Figure 1-12: Global LNG Trade Volume, 2005-2009 (Billion cubic meters)
Figure 1-13: Global LNG Trade Value, 2005-2009 (Billion USD)
Figure 1-14: Global LNG Trade Volume, 2010-2015 (Billion cubic meters)
Figure 1-15: Global LNG Trade Value, 2010-2015 (Billion USD)
Report Format
Report Methodology
Abbreviations and Definitions
Table 1-3: Abbreviations Utilized in Report


Chapter 2: LNG Technology
Introduction
Characteristics of LNG
Table 2-1: Typical Chemical Composition of LNG
LNG Technology
Exploration and Production
Figure 2-1: Natural Gas Production Process Overview
Liquefaction
Figure 2-2: LNG Liquefaction Plant Process Overview
Liquefaction Processes
APCI Multi-Component Refrigerant Process (MCRTM)
Figure 2-3: APCI MCRTM Process
Phillips Optimized Cascade® Process
Figure 2-4: Phillips Optimized Cascade® Process
Statoil/Linde Mixed Fluid Cascade Process (MFCP)
Figure 2-5: Statoil/Linde Mixed Fluid Cascade Process (MFCP)
Shell Double Mixed Refrigerant Process (DMR)
Black & Veatch PRICO® Process
Figure 2-6: Black & Veatch PRICO® Process
Axens LiquefinTM Process
Shipping
Ship Capacity
Cargo Containment Systems
Table 2-2: Summary of LNG Carrier Containment Systems
Moss® Containment System
Figure 2-7: Schematic of Moss® Containment System
Membrane Containment Systems
Figure 2-8: Schematic of Mid-Ship Section of a Membrane Containment System
NO96 System
Table 2-3: GTT Membrane-Design LNG Carrier Containment Systems
Mark III System
CS1 System
Carrier Propulsion Systems
Dual-Fuel Diesel Electric (DFDE)
Slow Speed Diesel with Reliquefaction (DRL)
Regasification
Figure 2-9: LNG Regasification Plant Process Overview
Receiving
Storage
Single Containment Tank
Double Containment Tank
Full Containment Tank
Membrane Tank
In-Ground Tank
Vaporization
Open Rack Vaporizers
Submerged Combustion Vaporizers
Intermediate Fluid Vaporizers
Ambient Air Vaporizers
Offshore Regasification
Odorization and Send-Out


Chapter 3: LNG Market Structure
Introduction
Figure 3-1: Global Marketed Energy Use by Fuel (in quadrillion Btu)
Table 3-1: Global Natural Gas Consumption and Imports (in billion cubic meters)
Early Development of LNG Market
Table 3-2: Significant Milestones in Early LNG Market Development
Table 3-3: Global Natural Gas Consumption and Imports (in billion cubic meters)
LNG Supply Chain
LNG Project Costs
Figure 3-2: LNG Supply Chain Project Costs (in % total cost)
Sales and Purchase Agreements
Table 3-4: Representative LNG Contracts in Effect, 2010 (in Mtpa)
LNG Short-Term Market
Figure 3-3: World LNG Volume Traded on Short-Term Market, 2000-2008 (in billion cubic meters)
Pricing
LNG Trade
Liquefaction and Export
Table 3-5: LNG Exporting Countries, 2009
Figure 3-4: World LNG Exports by Country, 2009 (in % Bcma)
Figure 3-5: World Liquefaction Capacity by Region, 2009 (in Bcma)
New Liquefaction Capacity
Russia
Indonesia
Norway
Yemen
Peru
Shipping
Table 3-6: World LNG Fleet, 2009-2012
Figure 3-6: Average Capacity of LNG Ships Delivered, 1980-2009 (in cubic meters)
Import and Regasification
Table 3-7: LNG Importing Countries, 2009
Figure 3-7: World LNG Imports by Country, 2009 (in % Bcma)
Asia
Figure 3-8: World Regasification Capacity by Region (in % Bcma)
China
India
Europe
Belgium
Italy
United Kingdom
North America
Canada
Mexico
United States
Figure 3-9: US LNG Import Capacity, 2000-2009 (in Bcfd)
Table 3-8: US LNG Marine Import Terminals, 2009 Year-End Capacity (in Bcfd)
Table 3-9: Proposed US Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Development, 2010
Central and South America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile


Chapter 4: Market Size and Demand Trends
Introduction
Demand Drivers and Trends
Global Energy Demand
Figure 4-1: World Marketed Energy Consumption, 2005-2015 (in quadrillion Btu)
Table 4-1: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
Member Countries, 2010
Figure 4-2: World Marketed Energy Consumption by Economic Region, 2005, 2010, 2015 (in quadrillion Btu)
Figure 4-3: World Marketed Energy Consumption by Economic Sub-Region, 2005-2015 (in quadrillion Btu)
Energy Demand Drivers
Population Growth
Figure 4-4: World Population by Economic Region, 2005-2015 (in millions)
Economic Growth
Figure 4-5: World Gross Domestic Product by Economic Region, 2005-2015 (in $ billion)
Global Energy Supply
Figure 4-6: World Marketed Energy Use by Fuel Type, 2005-2015 (in quadrillion Btu)
Liquid Fuels
Table 4-2: World’s Proved Oil Reserves, 2010
Figure 4-7: World Oil Prices, 1995-2015 (in 2007 USD per barrel)
Coal
Table 4-3: Top Five Producers of World Hard Coal, 2010
Natural Gas
Global Natural Gas Reserves
Table 4-4: World’s Proved Reserves of Natural Gas, 2009
Figure 4-8: World Natural Gas Reserves by Region, 2009 (Trillion Cubic Feet, Percent of Total)
Global Natural Gas Consumption
Figure 4-9: World Electricity Generation by Fuel Type, 2005, 2015 (Percent of Total)
Figure 4-10: Global Natural Gas Consumption, 2005-2015 (Trillion cubic feet)
Global Natural Gas Production
Figure 4-11: World Natural Gas Production, 2009 (Trillion Cubic Feet)
Regional Natural Gas Demand Trends
Figure 4-12: Share of Imported Natural Gas, 2005, 2010, 2015 (Percent)
Table 4-5: Global Natural Gas Imports by Region and Type, 2008 (in billion cubic meters)
North America
Europe
Asia
Central and South America
Historic and Current LNG Market Size
Figure 4-13: Global LNG Trade Volume, 2005-2009 (Billion cubic meters)
Asia
Europe
North America
Figure 4-14: Global LNG Trade Value, 2005-2009 (Billion USD)
LNG Market Projections
Figure 4-15: Global LNG Liquefaction Capacity, 2005-2015 (Billion cubic meters per Annum)
Figure 4-16: Global LNG Trade Volume, 2010-2015 (Billion cubic meters)
Figure 4-17: Global LNG Trade Value, 2010-2015 (Billion USD)


Chapter 5: Participant Profiles
Overview
Table 5-1: Description of Companies Profiled
BP
Table 5-2: BP Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Brand Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-1: BP Revenues, 2005-2009 ($ billion)
Company News
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Personnel Changes
Citigroup
Table 5-3: Citigroup Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Brand Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-2: Citigroup Revenues, 2005-2009 ($ billion)
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Personnel Changes
ConocoPhillips
Table 5-4: ConocoPhillips Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Brand Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-3: ConocoPhillips Revenues, 2005-2009 ($ billion)
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Personnel Changes
Duke Energy
Table 5-5: Duke Energy Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Brand Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-4: Duke Energy Revenues, 2005-2009 ($ billion)
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Personnel Changes
Foster Wheeler AG
Table 5-6: Foster Wheeler AG Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Brand Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-5: Foster Wheeler AG Revenues, 2005-2009 ($ billion)
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Personnel Changes
General Electric
Table 5-7: General Electric Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Brand Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-6: General Electric Revenues, 2005-2009 ($ billion)
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Personnel Changes
Royal Dutch Shell plc
Table 5-8: Royal Dutch Shell plc Profile
Corporate Background
Product and Brand Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-7: Royal Dutch Shell plc Revenues, 2005-2009 ($ billion)
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Personnel Changes


Appendix: Selected Corporate Addresses

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