Clean Coal Technologies Markets and Trends Worldwide, 2nd Edition

 
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Published Jan 1, 2012 | 242 Pages | Pub ID: SB6447642

Coal is expected to continue to be a dominant fuel in power generation due to its low cost and abundance. Nearly 7 billion tonnes of coal were produced globally in 2010, and over 40% of global electricity was coal powered. On a levelized cost of production basis, the global market value of coal-fired electricity exceeded $400 billion. Nonetheless, conventional coal power generation is a leading contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and is increasingly being regulated and disincentivized. Further, clean and renewable energy sources are beginning to challenge conventional fossil fuels.

Clean coal technologies that improve the environmental performance of coal power generation are expected to enable coal to remain an attractive fuel option well into the future. Several clean coal technologies that increase efficiency of coal power plants and reduce emissions are actively being developed and deployed to meet these challenges. As development and adoption of these technologies has increased, the global value of electricity generation using clean coal technologies has concurrently grown to $63 billion in 2010 and is further expected to grow to $85 billion by 2020.

While coal washing, particulate, and emissions treatments have been in use for several decades, recent advances in these technologies have substantially improved the effectiveness and reduced the cost of these solutions. As a result of these advances and increasing emissions regulation around the world, the adoption of technologies that reduce SO2, NOx and particulate emissions has accelerated over the past decade. Concurrently, combustion technologies including super critical (SC), ultra-super critical (UC) pulverized coal combustion (PCC), and circulating and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technologies are increasing the power conversion efficiencies of coal power plants. These advanced technologies have enabled simultaneous improvements in emissions and economics of coal-fired generation. Advanced power plant designs incorporating gasification and combined cycle power generation (IGCC) have also been recently commercialized and have demonstrated significantly higher efficiencies of up to 45 percent. Such high efficiency coal power technologies reduce the production of carbon dioxide as they combust less coal per unit of power generated and have demonstrated emissions reductions of up to 33 percent over conventional pulverized coal technologies.

However, the greatest opportunity for the coal industry to reinvent itself as a clean power source lies in the maturation and deployment of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). CCS technologies enable the capture of carbon dioxide from coal power conversion processes and sequester it in underground and offshore geological formations; virtually eliminating greenhouse gas emissions from coal combustion. While CCS technologies and processes have been leveraged in industrial and oil and gas applications for decades, it is only in recent years that the technologies have been adapted and demonstrated on large-scale coal power plants. The success of these early projects could pave the road for truly clean coal power.

Global Clean Coal Technologies and Markets provides a detailed discussion of the key technologies, deployed or in development, to address the environmental impact of coal. The various clean coal technologies that hold the most promise for commercial deployment are discussed in the report. CCS and other clean coal technologies are reviewed from the point of view of their current status, likely future performance and R&D needs, and potential for commercial adoption. The report also includes a broad review of the market for clean coal technologies for coal-fired electricity generation. The global market demand for coal, electricity, and clean coal-fired electricity is quantified and projections for growth in demand are provided, along with the key factors influencing this growth in leading coal consuming nation around the world. Global Clean Coal Technologies and Markets details the current and projected percentage of electricity generated by clean coal technologies. The historical and projected market value of the clean coal technologies is also covered. The report includes profiles of 15 companies actively engaged in the clean coal market, and also details current and potential US employment in the sector. The ongoing research, development, commercialization and deployment of clean coal technologies is expected to generate a significant number of direct, indirect and induced jobs over the next 10 to 15 years. The construction and operation of coal-fired power plants that incorporate clean coal technologies will also result in the creation of tens of thousands of jobs across a variety of sectors. The report provides an overview of coal- and electricity-related employment and details projections for expected growth.

Report Methodology

The information in Global Clean Coal Technologies and Markets is based on primary and secondary research. Primary research entailed gathering information from firms and individuals involved in development of clean coal technologies, coal production, and coal-fired electricity generation to obtain information on the developing market and factors shaping the industry. Secondary research entailed data gathering from relevant sources, including government and industry publications, company literature and corporate annual reports.

What You’ll Get in This Report

Global Clean Coal Technologies and Markets contains important insights and projections regarding the future of this market around the world. The report provides both comprehensive data and analysis. Subscribers will benefit from extensive data, presented in easy-to-read and practical charts, tables, and graphs.

Global Clean Coal Technologies and Markets provides a detailed discussion of the key technologies, deployed or in development, to address the environmental impact of coal-fired electricity generation as well as broad review of the global market for clean coal technologies for coal-fired electricity generation. The global market demand for coal, electricity, and clean coal-fired electricity is quantified and projections for growth in demand are provided, along with the key factors influencing this growth in leading coal consuming nation around the world. The report includes profiles of 15 companies actively engaged in the clean coal market, and also details current and potential US employment in the sector.

How You’ll Benefit from This Report

If your company is already doing business in the energy markets, or is considering entering the marketplace, you will find this report invaluable. It provides a comprehensive package of information and insight not offered in any other single source. You will gain a thorough understanding of the current global market for clean coal technologies, as well as projected markets and trends through 2020.

This report will help:

  • Marketing managers understand the forces shaping global energy markets and the market for clean coal technologies and identify market opportunities.
  • Research and development professionals stay on top of competitor initiatives and explore demand for clean coal technologies.
  • Business development executives understand the dynamics of the market and identify possible partnerships.
  • Information and research center librarians provide market researchers, product managers, and other colleagues with the vital information they need to do their jobs more effectively.
Introduction
Report Methodology
What You’ll Get in This Report
How You’ll Benefit from This Report

Chapter 1: Executive Summary
Scope
The abundance of coal and its use as a primary fuel source
Table 1-1: Largest Coal Exporters/Importers, 2010, million metric tonnes (Mt)
Table 1-2: Environmental Challenges Presented by Various Coal Plant Emissions
Clean Coal Technologies
Table 1-3: Clean Coal Technologies
Pulverized Coal Combustion
Subcritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
Supercritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
Fluidized Bed Combustion
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Generation
Carbon Capture and Sequestration
Cost Economics of Clean Coal Technologies
Market drivers
Figure 1-1: World Net Electricity Generation by Region, 1990 - 2035
Table 1-4: Clean Coal Electricity Generation by Region, 2010 - 2020 (TW)
Figure 1-2: 2010 Share of Total Coal-Fired Electricity Generation by Plant Type
Figure 1-3: Share of Total Coal-Fired Electricity Generation by Plant Type
Table 1-5: Historic and Projected Global CCT Market Value 2006 to 2020 ($ billion)
Government incentives
Market Demand Inhibitors and Risk Factors
Figure 1-4: Percentage of Electricity Generated by Coal
Market drivers
Meeting the growing demand for electricity with Clean Coal Technologies
Market Participants
Table 1-6: List of Companies Profiled
US Clean Coal Investments and Employment Outlook
Table 1-7: Coal production in the United States, 2005-2011 (thousand short tons)
Table 1-8: Projected coal mining employment 2011 through 2020
Table 1-9: Project electric power employment 2011 through 2020
Employment in Advanced Coal Power Generation with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ACPGCCS)
Table 1-10: Project ACPBCCS employment 2006 through 2020
Figure 1-5: Employment by sector due to construction of ACPGCCS
Figure 1-6: Distribution of jobs by sector
Report Methodology
Abbreviations and Definitions
Table 1-11: Abbreviations Utilized in Report

Chapter 2: Clean Coal Technologies
Overview
Table 2-1 Clean Coal Technologies and Emissions Addressed
Coal Fundamentals
Coal Composition and Types
Figure 2-1: Global Coal Reserves by Type and Use (% world reserves)
Table 2-2: Typical Chemical Composition and Thermal Content of US Coal by Type (% weight)
World Coal Resources
Table 2-3: Top Five Producers of World Hard Coal, 2010
Coal Extraction
Coal Preparation
Environmental Impact of Coal-Fired Power Generation
Table 2-4: World Electricity Generated from Coal, 2010
Table 2-5: Environmental Challenges Presented by Various Coal Plant Emissions
Table 2-6: Average Emission Rates from Coal-Fired Electricity Generation
Coal Combustion Technologies
Table 2-7: Average Achievable Combustion Efficiency by Combustion Technology (% conversion efficiency)
Figure 2-2: Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants at Various Efficiencies (in tonnes/MWh)
Pulverized Coal Combustion
Figure 2-3: Pulverized Coal Combustion Process
Table 2-8: Pressure, Temperature, & Efficiency Comparison of PCC Steam Units
Subcritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
Supercritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Combustion
Fluidized Bed Combustion
Figure 2-4: Schematic of Fluidized Bed Combustion
Bubbling Fluidized Bed
Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Generation
Figure 2-5: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Combustion Process
Coal Gasification
Combined Cycle Power Generation
Advantages of IGCC Systems
Post-Combustion Effluent Treatment Technologies
Particulate Removal Systems
Table 2-9: Comparison of Particulate Removal Systems
Fabric Filters
Electrostatic Precipitators
Wet Particulate Scrubbers
Flue Gas Desulfurization
Table 2-10: Comparison of Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems
Wet Scrubbers
Dry Scrubbers
Sorbent Injection Processes
Nitrogen Oxide Reduction Systems
Low-NOx Burners
Table 2-11: Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide-Reducing Flue Gas Systems
Selective Catalytic Reduction
Figure 2-6: Schematic of Selective Catalytic Reduction Process
Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction
Figure 2-7: Flow Diagram of Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction Process
Carbon Capture and Sequestration
Carbon Capture
Post Combustion Capture
Technology Overview
Figure 2-8: Typical Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Unit for Pulverized Coal Plant
Advantages and Disadvantages
Table 2-12: Challenges For Post-Combustion Capture for Coal Plants vs. Industrial Applications
Table 2-13: Advantages and Disadvantages of Post-Combustion Capture (Chemical Absorption)
Table 2-14: Representative Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Coal-Fired Power Plant Projects
Innovation
Table 2-15: Representative Post-Combustion CCS Technologies (Absorption Systems)
Pre-Combustion Capture
Technology Overview
Figure 2-9: Typical Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Process for IGCC Plant
Table 2-16: Representative Pre-Combustion CCS Technologies
Advantages and Disadvantages
Table 2-17: Advantages and Disadvantages of Pre-Combustion Capture
Table 2-18: Representative Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Coal-Fired Power Plant Projects
Innovation
Oxyfuel Combustion
Technology Overview
Figure 2-10: Typical Oxyfuel Carbon Capture Process for Pulverized Coal Plant
Advantages and Disadvantages
Table 2-19: Advantages and Disadvantages of Oxyfuel Combustion
Table 2-20: Representative Oxyfuel Carbon Capture Coal-Fired Power Plant Projects
Innovation
Carbon Transportation
Carbon Sequestration
Geologic Sequestration Reservoirs
Figure 2-11: Geologic Carbon Sequestration
Depleted Oil and Gas Fields
Deep Saline Formations
Deep Coal Seams

Chapter 3: Clean Coal Technologies Market Demand Drivers, Inhibitors, and Risk Factors
Market Demand Drivers
Growth in Global Energy Consumption
Abundance of Global Coal Resources
Figure 3-1: World Net Electricity Generation by Region, 1990 - 2035
Table 3-1: Status of Coal Supply Terms
Table 3-2: Proved Reserves at end of 2009 (million tones)
Table 3-2: (continued) Proved Reserves at end of 2009, million tones
Growth in Global Electricity Demand
Figure 3-2: Growth in world electric power generation and total energy consumption, 1990-2035 (index, 1990 = 1)
Table 3-3: Residential and Commercial demand
Figure 3-3: World Net Electricity Generation OECD vs Non-OECD, 1990-2035
Low Cost of Coal Power Generation
Increasing Emissions Regulation in Various Countries
Government Incentives to Promote Development/Commercialization of Clean Coal Technologies
Advances in Clean Coal Technologies
Market Demand Inhibitors and Risk Factors
Competition from Other Power Generation Fuels and Technologies
Natural Gas versus coal
Nuclear versus coal
Renewables versus coal
Cost Economics of Clean Coal Technologies
Cost uncertainty
Advanced Clean Coal Technologies Unproven on Commercial Scale
Table 3-4: Carbon Capture Technology Status
Failure to Adopt Carbon Emissions Regulation in Large Industrialized Nations
Negative Public Opinion/Resistance to Coal as a “Green” Power Sources

Chapter 4: Clean Coal Technologies Market Size
Growth drivers
Figure 4-1: Demand for Electricity Growth Rate 2008 through 2035
Figure 4-2: World Coal Consumption 2016 through 2020.
Key participants
Regulatory environment
Barriers to growth
Historic and Projected Global Volume of CCT-Enabled Electricity 2006 to 2020
Table 4-1: Clean Coal Electricity Generation by Region, 2010 - 2020 (TW)
Subcritical
Figure 4-3: Percent Energy Capacity, Subcritical Plants by Region, 2010 and 2020 (TW)
Super/ultra-critical
Figure 4-4: Percent Energy Capacity, Super/Ultra-Critical Plants by Region, 2010 and 2020 (TW)
FBC
Figure 4-5: Percent Energy Capacity, FBC Plants by Region, 2010 and 2020 (TW)
IGCC
Figure 4-6: Percent Energy Capacity, IGCC Plants by Region, 2010 and 2020 (TW)
Total energy capacity
Figure 4-7: Percent Energy Capacity, Total CCT Plants by Region, 2010 and 2020 (TW)
Historic and Projected Global CCT Market Value 2006 to 2020
Table 4-2 Global Coal-Fired Electricity Generations by Plant Type (TW)
Figure 4-8: 2010 Share of Total Coal-Fired Electricity Generation by Plant Type
Figure 4-9: 2016 Share of Total Coal-Fired Electricity Generation by Plant Type
Table 4-3: Historic and Projected Global CCT Market Value 2006 to 2020 ($ billion)
Clean Coal Technology Markets in Major Coal Consuming Nations/Regions
United States
Canada
China
India
Japan
Russia
Australia
South Africa
Western Europe
Coal Production/Sourcing
Table 4-4: World’s Top Coal-Producing Countries, 2011
Coal sourcing
Table 4-5: Largest Coal Exporters/Importers, 2010, million metric tonnes (Mt)
Australia
Indonesia
Russia
United States
South Africa
Coal Consumption
Table 4-6: Coal Consumption by Country/Region, 2006 - 2020
Table 4-7: World total energy consumption by fuel 2006-2020 (Quadrillion Btu)
Electricity Demand
Electricity Generated from Coal
Stated/Pending Clean Coal Regulation
Western Europe
China
India
Russia
Australia
Historic and Projected Global CCT Market Value 2006 to 2020
United States
Table 4-8: Installed US CCT Capacity, 2010 to 2020 (TW)
Table 4-9: US Installed Capacity Other Technologies, 2010 - 2020
China
Table 4-10: China installed CCT capacity, 2010-2020 (TW)
Table 4-11: China installed capacity other technologies, 2010-2020 (GW)
India
Table 4-12: India installed CCT capacity, 2010-2020 (TW)
Table 4-13: India installed capacity other technologies, 2010-2020 (GW)
European Union
Table 4-14: Europe installed CCT capacity, 2010 - 2020 (TW)
Table 4-15: Europe installed capacity other technologies, 2010 - 2020 (GW)
Japan
Table 4-16: Japan installed CCT capacity, 2010-2020 (TW)
Table 4-17: Japan installed capacity other technologies, 2010-2020 (GW)
Global CCT projects
Table 4-18: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration/Pilot/Commercial Projects for Electric Power Generation Worldwide
Table 4-19: Global CCT Market Value, 2006 - 2020 (US$, billion)

Chapter 5: Participant Profiles
Overview
Table 5-1: List of Companies Profiled
Acorn Energy, Incorporated
Table 5-2: Acorn Energy, Incorporated Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Table 5-3: Acorn Energy, Incorporated Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-1: Acorn Energy Revenues and Operating Income, 2006-2010e (in $ M)
ADA-ES, Incorporated
Table 5-4: ADA-ES, Incorporated Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Table 5-5: ADA Environmental Solutions Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-2: ADA Environmental Services Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010e (in $ M)
Alstom Power
Table 5-6: Alstom Power Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Table 5-7: Alstom Power Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-3: Alstom Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010e (in € B)
Arch Coal, Incorporated
Table 5-8: Arch Coal, Incorporated Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-4: Arch Coal, Incorporated Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
American Electric Power
Table 5-9: American Electric Power Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Figure 5-5: American Electric Power Electricity Generating Capacity by Fuel Source (in Percent)
Performance
Figure 5-6: American Electric Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
China Huaneng Group
Table 5-10 China Huaneng Group Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-7: China Huaneng Group Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010e (in RMB B)
CO2 Solution, Incorporated
Table 5-11: CO2 Solution, Incorporated Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-8: CO2 Solution, Incorporated Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ M)
ConocoPhillips
Table 5-12 ConocoPhillips Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-9: ConocoPhillips Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
Foster Wheeler AG
Table 5-13: Foster Wheeler AG Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Figure 5-10: Foster Wheeler AG Revenue by Business Segment (in Percent)
Performance
Figure 5-11: Foster Wheeler AG Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
General Electric
Table 5-14: General Electric Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-12: General Electric Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
Halliburton Company
Table 5-15: Halliburton Company Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Table 5-36: Halliburton Company Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-13: Halliburton Company Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
Peabody Energy Corporation
Table 5-17: Peabody Energy Corporation Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-14: Peabody Energy Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
Praxair, Incorporated
Table 5-18: Praxair, Incorporated Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Table 5-19: Praxair, Incorporated Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-15: Praxair, Incorporated Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)
Siemens AG
Table 5-20: Siemens AG. Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-16: Siemens AG Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in € B)
Schlumberger, Ltd.
Table 5-21: Schlumberger, Ltd. Profile
Corporate Overview
Product Portfolio
Table 5-22: Schlumberger, Ltd. Product Portfolio
Performance
Figure 5-17: Schlumberger, Ltd Revenues and Net Income, 2006-2010 (in $ B)

Chapter 6: U.S. Coal-Related Employment
Overview
US Coal Mining Employment
Figure 6-1: Employment Trend, 1985 - 2010 (in thousands)
Coal Mining Industry Structure
Table 6-1: Major US Coal Mining Companies
Table 6-2: US Coal Production, 2005 - 2011 (thousand short tons)
Occupations in Coal Mining
Figure 6-:2 Top Coal Producing States, 2011
Coal Mining Employment 2006 to 2010
Table 6-3: Disbursements of Employees across States and by Mine Type, 2009
Table 6-4: Coal Mining employment (monthly), 2006 - 2010
Projected Coal Mining Employment 2011 to 2020
Table 6-5: Coal Mining Employment, 2011 - 2020
US Electric Power Employment
Electric Power Industry Structure
Figure 6-3: Sources of Fuel for Electricity, 2010
Traditional Electric Utilities
Table 6-6: Retail Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: Total by End-Use Sector, 1997 through May 2011, million Kilowatt hours
Occupations in Electric Power
Electric Power Employment 2006 to 2010
Table 6-7: Electric Power Employment Levels, 2006 - 2010
Projected Electric Power Employment 2011 to 2020
Table 6-8: Electric Power Employment Figures, 2011 - 2020
Employment in Advanced Coal Power Generation with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ACPGCCS)
Projected US ACPGCCS Employment 2006 to 2020
Table 6-9: Projected Employment, 2006 - 2020, based on three different investment scenarios
Indirect and Induced Employment Resulting from ACPGCCS
Figure 6-4: Distribution of Jobs by Sector, 2010
Figure 6-5: Distribution of Jobs by Sector